So quoted Anita Golderba during her presentation at the Cataloguing session at IFLA.
My remaining session notes are posted below. I am extremely late in posting them, but there are so many good ideas and points that were made by the presenters, I wanted to make them available.
Classification and indexing without language borders
- Interoperable data between all countries
- “Semantic interoperability”, especially between special and heritage collections
- Goal – bibliographic records may be structured differently, but still interoperable because there is uniform metadata, vocabulary and subject indexing.
- Ideal – When data is pulled up, institutions should share information and draw from subject words/cross references to pull up multilingual but uniform pages. This is done through building complex indexes (cataloguers are being used for this). This allows users to search multiple catalogues from different libraries/institutions
Problems with sharing data – different MARC records, fields, authorities, subject use, etc.
How to get past these problems?
- Use of semantic web
- Insist on using a standard/common format
- Consider conceptual vocabularies and base them in XML or HTML
- Semantic links, more search options
- Scope notes
- Additional resources
- Deeper search choices
This is done through use of algorithms and complex indexing.
Philipp Mayr, GESIS Social Science Information Centre
Vocabulary that is controlled is great – but it usually only represents one catalogue. How do you handle multiple collections in different languages?
Translate – cross-walks = Terminology mapping
Difficulty comes when mapping
Classification vs. thesaurus
Change of disciplines
Do mappings inprove subject searches? – YES
Do mappings allow for free text searches? – YES
example of multilingual, mapped database
Michael Kreyche, Systems Librarian, Kent State University
- Spanish/English Database – with a bilingual interface
- Based on LCSH
- Multilingual subject headings
Concern for multilingual catalogues:
Experts (cataloguers) aren’t controlling the terms. Vendors provide data that is incorrect, inappropriate and not uniform.
You must have cataloguers to have a functioning and accurate bilingual catalogue.
Most libraries, both public and academic, are moving in the direction of multilingual catalogues.
Example of bilingual database: lsch-es.org
Read article “The Changing Nature of the Catalog and its Integration with other Discovery Tools” by Karen Calhoun, 2006.
Towards understanding in the multicultural world
Donna Scheeder, Law Library of Congress
Turning the world into a learning organization – World wide collaboration such as Wikipedia is an example of knowledge management beyond the walls of our organizations
Librarians are knowledge managers and cataloguers understand how to organize and disseminate this knowledge.
- Factors that impact knowledge management:
Many of our projects are too big for one organization
Resources need to be shared
Knowledge needs to be distributed across cultures and national boundaries
This is more than a database – information need to be put into a context. As a result, the demand for librarians, and especially cataloguers, is predicted to grow, if we put ourselves “out there”.
New technology has enabled us to create and share knowledge across boundaries. An example is GLIN (Global Legal Information Network). This is a global, collaborative legal database searchable in 13 languages.
- Success for global sharing:
Decision making structure emphasizing collaboration
Agreement on quality and technical standards
Taxonomy/thesaurus that provides a basis for understanding through linking languages for common concepts
**This goes far beyond Google and requires experts in cataloguing and indexing.
- Success factors for finding/working on global sharing
Make sure leadership roles are shared
Book recommendation: The 5th Disciple: The Right and Practice of the Learning Organization (Peter Senge)
Q & As:
Q: Difference between knowledge management v. information management.
A: Don’t get so hung up on terminology
Overall theme: We must have a shared goal. Information is culturally and contextually sensitive that require various degrees of engagement. Information transcends time, space and format.
Linda Stoddart, United Nations
We should view ourselves at knowledge managers, with a goal to outreach and sharing information. We can no longer think in terms of libraries and librarians.
Sharing standards: cooperation with other actors
Pat Riva, Bibliotheques et Archives nationale du Quebec
- Reasons for cooperation:
Serve common users
Facilitate exchange of information
FRBRoo focusses on process and models concepts in FRBR
Go to the IFLA FRBR website for the working group’s reports
Elizabeth O’Keefe, Morgan Library and Museum
Sharing standards and expertise in the 21st century
Moving toward a collaborative, cross-community model for metadata creation
Musems like the Morgan are continually seeking the expertise of cataloguers. They are creating cross-domain catalogues. Objects in local art galleries or museums are being included in the local library catalogue.
Curators and librarians share a common goal. Historically, curators have catalogues all non-book items in museums. This has led to databases with differing standards.
What did the Morgan do about this?
Adopt the cataloguing standard used in libraries. The standards are better as well as the controlled vocabulary and metadata standard.
- Cataloguers are responsible for:
Selection of controlled vocabulary
Final say on records
Curators provide content
“Many hands make light work – especially when cataloguers do the work they’re trained for”
Anita Golderba, National Library of Latvia
“Standards are like toothbrushes, a good idea but no one wants to use anyone elses” – Burca.
Everyone agrees library records are the most structured and accurate due to our standards.
However, we practice such rigid standards that we’re missing some of the great content and ideas that other instutitions use (but lack our skill to make it accessible)
Negativity towards cataloguers stems from the design and limitations of OPACS, not the lack of expertise or ingenuity of cataloguers. Unforutanely, many times it is easier to blame the cataloguers.
FRBR – the whole point is to bring interoperability and collaboration bewteen libraries, organizations and other information institutions.
Comment from audience:
Barbara Tillet – Bibliographic records are dynamic. They are always changing. Authorities need to be altered frequently, as do access points (think government names and geographic locations, the invention of new terms and technology, etc). Library records aren’t static.
National bibliography agencies without borders – experiences on collaboration with other producers of bibliographic data
Philippe Cantie and Anne-Celine Lambotte, Bibliotheque nationale de France
With web 2.0, the user has a more active role
How can we bring the users in for participation in bibliographies? – in this case, users are libraries, galleries, museums, etc.
Creating searchable bibliographies based on Dewey, with web 2.0 features
Ability to add comments and tags
Goal is to add an open, collaborative bibliography housed on the web.
Liz McKeen, LAC
LAC has a cataloguing policy for digital publications
Basic acces: full text searching
Supplementary access via metadata
Metadata supplied by others
Generated by existing descriptive metadata
Automatically generated by the digital information itself
Full cataloguing criteria is set out
Is it important to Canada?
Is it important to research?
Digital requires a single record approach
If government publication was in print, add digital link and information to existing record.
Stresses the importance of maintaining traditional cataloguing and access while bringing in digital materials that also need attention for access.
Maha Zumer, University of Ljubljana
Cataloguing, the “new” definition: Describing to promote access, not describing an object for the sake of describing it.
- You can’t outsource a bilingual catalogue or anything you collect that’s local:
Local CDs, Books, Videos
Customized needs for staff